A measurement of vector analyzing powers in elastic deuteron-carbon scattering has been performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Seven kinetic beam energies between 170 and 380 MeV have been used. A vector-polarized beam from a polarized deuteron source was injected, accelerated to the final desired energy and stored in COSY. A thin needle-shaped diamond strip was used as a carbon target, onto which the beam was slowly steered. Elastically scattered deuterons were identified in the forward direction using various layers of scintillators and straw tubes. Where data exist in the literature (at 200 and 270 MeV), excellent agreement of the angular shape was found. The beam polarization of the presented data was deduced by fitting the absolute scale of the analyzing power to these references. Our results extend the world data set and are necessary for polarimetry of future electric dipole moment searches at storage rings. They will as well serve as an input for theoretical description of polarized hadron-hadron scattering.